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54
001
091

 

sum:

3412
3502

 第五十四章
d wǔ sh s zhāng

Social Maturing

Soziale Reifung

 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09

 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36

 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45

 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54

 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63

 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72

 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81

 

Raw texts s. below / Rohtexte s. unten!

 

54.a
001
017

Well Established, well Preserved; Worship of Ancestors

Fest gegrndet, gut bewahrt; Ahnenverehrung

+ Hn Fēizǐ 韓非子 (280-233) - W. K. Liao: 
 
Ch. XX. Commentaries on Lao Tzŭ's Teachings.*

+ Yē sū

No.
sum

Wng B 王弼
Pīnyīn 拼音

Characters
Schriftzeichen

Analysis
Analyse

Verbatim
Wortgetreu

Poetic
Poetisch

Analogous
Sinngem

 

 

 

54 - Social Maturing

 Some Confucian influence, esp. with Confucius' "Record of Rites" [s. *below], has been discussed [Simon, Jacobs, Schwarz, Ames & Hall, et.al.]:
 F
or the elements of self-improvement, but 'other-wise'... the aspect of administration from below (not only by the state), exudes the spirit of Do.

 

 01-03:

 Well-anchored ones will not be uprooted,

 well hold on ones
 not go astray.

 

 Thereby, children and grandchildren,
 worshiping
their
ancestors
,
 are not interrupted
.

 01-02 Those with strong roots and who know how to conserve are protected:
 "He consolidates his root and then only he takes care of his stem and branches...". [cf. "物有本末 "Things have their root and their branches." Confucius, 禮記 lǐ j, "Record of Rites" *].
 "He has no craving for having more and manages to do what he is capable of.
[*
Wng B / Wagner].

 03 "If sons and grandsons transmit this Way [of 'anchoring' that is, consolidating the root, and 'holding on to the One'] by way of examining themselves, then this Way 'will not be interrupted."

 Note: 老子 Lǎozĭ says: "The sons and grandsons bring sacrifices without interruption." [see analysis: Wagner 2003 p. 480-481].
 Again an Confucian element, maybe mixed into the
道德經 Dodjīng by someone, at an early stage, in an attempt to reconcile Doist and Confucianist thoughts.
 
老子 Lǎozĭ had already outgrown this spirit of rituals.

 

 04-08:

 Cultivate it (Do) in your Self,
 then your Inner Power
becomes genuine;

 cultivate it in the family,
 then your Inner Power
becomes plentiful
;

 cultivate it in the community,
 then
your Inner Power becomes enduring;

 cultivate it in the country,
 then
your Inner Power becomes overflowing;

 cultivate it in all world,
 
then your Inner Power is all-encompassing.

 04-08 "[The text] proceeds from one's own person to the others. As a consequence of one's cultivating it [this Way] with regard to one's person, it [the person] will [realize its] true [nature].
 As a consequence of one's cultivating it [this Way] with regard to one's family, it [the family] will have abundance. As long as one's cultivating it does not deteriorate, what one effects [through the cultivation of this Way] becomes ever broader and greater."
[
*].

 **cf. partly parallel Confucius' 大學 d xu.

 

 09-13:

 Hence: according to your Self
 consider yourself,

 according to your family
 consider your family,

 according to the community
 consider
the community,

 according to the country
 consider
the country,

 according to all world
 consider all world.
 

 09-13 "The others [persons, families, districts, states] all are there in the same way [as one's own]" [*].

 "The Daodejing like the Daxue rehearses the concentric and mutually entailing circles through which the rippling effect of cosmic cultivation takes place, beginning here with one's own personal character and extending through the familiar social and political institutions to include the farthest reaches of the cosmos. Such overlapping and synergistic cultivation of a cosmic ethos establishes a touchstone a standard of quality that can be appealed to in continuing and sustaining the process." [Ames & Hall].

 *** cf. Confucius' 大學 d xu.

 

 14-15:

 Whereby I realize
 all world as such, indeed?

 Intuitively!

 14 "On the basis of the intentions of the Hundred Families of All Under Heaven one understands the Way of All Under Heaven." (...) [*]

 Note: Only the element 'All Under Heaven' has no counterpart, therefore Wng B adds the following two attributes [see Wagner p. 368+482], referring to ch. 73.07-08.:
 "The Way of All Under Heaven is, with regard to deviation and conformity, auspiciousness and in-auspiciousness, altogether like the Way of men."
[*].

 15 (to Lǎozĭ): "Through this" [the above = on un-derstanding: persons - families - districts - state; h.a.)].
 Here
Wng B refers to ch. 47.01., to explain his...

 Method of Introspection:
 "This means: What is it through which I manage to cognize All Under Heaven? I examine myself by way of cognizing it [All Under Heaven], and I do not strive [for this cognition] on the outside.
 This is what [in
Laozi 47.1.] is called '[Only when] not going out of doors [into All Under Heaven one has something] by means of which to cognize All Under Heaven'."
[*]

hilmar alquiros, 2017

 

 

54 - Soziale Reifung

 Einiger konfuzanischer Einfluss, besonders mit Konfuzius' "Aufzeichnungen der Riten" [s.u.*] wrd diskutiert [Simon, Jacobs, Schwarz, Ames & Hall, et.al.]:
 fr die Elemente
der Selbstveredelung, doch 'auf andere Weise'... atmet der Aspekt der Verwaltung von unten (nicht nur duch den Staat), den Geist des Do.

 

 01-03:

 Gut Verwurzelte werden nicht entwurzelt,

 die gut die Einheit bewahren,
 nicht in die Irre gehen.

 

 Dabei werden Kinder und Kindeskinder,
 
die ihre Ahnen mit Opfergaben verehren,
 
nicht unterbrochen.

 01-02 Die gut Verwurzelten und gut Bewahrenden sind geschtzt:
 "Er festigt seine Wurzel, und dann gibt er Acht auf seinen Stamm und seine Zweige...". [vgl.
"物有本末 "Dinge haben ihre Wurzel und ihre Zweige". Confucius, 禮記 lǐ j, "Aufzeichnung der Riten" oder "Buch der Riten" *].

 Er hat keine Gelste, mehr zu haben, und erledigt, wozu er fhig ist.. [* Wng B / Wagner].

 03 "Wenn Shne und Enkel diesen Weg mittels Selbstberprfung weiterreichen [d.h. 'Verwurzel-ung', Festigung der Wurzel und 'am Einen fest-halten'], dann wird dieser Weg 'nicht unterbrochen werden'."

 Anmerkung: 老子 Lǎozĭ selbst sagt: "Die Shne und Enkel bringen Opfer dar ohne Unterbrechung." [s. Analyse: Wagner 2003 p. 480-481].
 Wiederum ein Konfuzianisches Element, vielleicht ins
道德經 Dodjīng hineingemischt, von jeman-dem zu einem frhen Zeitpunkt in einem Versuch, Doistische und Konfuzianische Gedanken mitein-ander zu vershnen.
 
老子 Lǎozĭ hatte bereits diese Geist des Rituals berwunden.

 

 04-08:

 Pflege es (Do) an dir selbst,
 dann
wird deine Innere Kraft echt;

 pflege es in der Familie,
 dann
wird deine Innere Kraft reichlich;

 pflege es in der Gemeinde,
 dann
wird deine Innere Kraft dauerhaft;

 pflege es im Land,
 dann
wird deine Innere Kraft berflieend;

 pflege es in aller Welt,
 dann
wird deine Innere Kraft
allumgreifend.

 04-08 "[Der Text] schreitet fort von seiner eige-nen Person zu den anderen. Als Konsequenz davon, dass man ihn [diesen Weg] im Hinblick auf seine eigene Person kultiviert, wird sie [die Person] [ihre] wahre [Natur] ermessen.
 Als Konsequenz davon, dass man ihn [diesen Weg] im Hinblick auf seine eigene Familie kultiviert, wird sie
 [die Familie] Flle besitzen. So lange man ihn kultiviert, verkommt er nicht, was man bewirkt [durch die Kultivierung dieses Weges] wird immer weiter und grer." [
*].

 **vgl. teilweise parallel Confucius' 大學 d xu.

 

 09-13:

 Darum: betrachte dich selbst
 gem deinem Selbst,

 betrachte die Familie
 gem
der Familie,

 betrachte die Gemeinde
 gem
der Gemeinde,

 betrachte das Land
 gem
dem Land,

 betrachte alle Welt
 gem aller Welt.

 09-13 "Die anderen [Personen, Familien, Bezirke, Staaten] sind alle in gleicher Weise [als sie selbst] da" [*].

 "Daodejing wie Daxue proben die konzentrischen und sich gegenseitig beinhaltenden Kreise, durch die sich die wellenfrmige Wirkung der kos-mischen Kultivierung vollzieht, beginnend hier mit dem eigenen persnlichen Charakter und sich durch die vertrauten sozialen und politischen Institutionen bis in die entferntesten Bereiche des Kosmos ausdehnend. Die berlappende und synergetische Kultivierung eines kosmischen Ethos schafft einen Prfstein - einen Qualittsstandard, auf den man sich bei der Fortfhrung und Aufrechterhaltung des Prozesses berufen kann." [Ames & Hall].

 *** vgl. Confucius' 大學 d xu.

 

 14-15:

 Wodurch erkenne ich
 alle Welt als solche wohl? 

 Intuitiv!

 14 "Basierend auf den Absichten aller (Familien) auf der Welt versteht man den Weg der ganzen Welt ." (...) [*]

 Anmerkung: Nur das Element 'die ganze Welt' hat kein Gegenstck, darum fgt Wng B die folgen-den zwei Eigenschaften hinzu [s. Wagner p. 368+482], bezogen auf ch. 73.07-08.:
 "Der Weg der ganzen Welt sind, bezglich Abweichung und bereinstimmung, gute Aussich-ten oder unheilvolle Vorbedeutungen insgesamt wie der Weg des Menschen." [*].

 15 (to Lǎozĭ): "Durch dies" [das Obige = ber das Verstehen: von den Personen ber Familien und Bezirke zum Staat (h.a.)].
 Hier bezieht sich Wng B auf
ch. 47.01., zu erklren seine ...

 Methode der Introspektion:
 "Dies bedeutet: Wodurch vermag ich alles in der Welt zu erkennen? Ich berprfe mich selbst darber, sie [die ganze Welt] zu erkennen, und ich strebe dabei [fr dieses Erkennen] nicht zur ueren Seite.
 
Dies wird [in Laozi 47.1.] genannt: '[Nur wenn] man nicht durch die Pforten hinaus geht [in aller Welt hat man etwas] um hierdurch alle Welt zu erkennen'." [*]

 

hilmar alquiros, 2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

54.01.
001
005

善建者
shn jin zhě

不拔,
b b,

good, well / gut.

founded {rooted, anchored, established} / gegrndet {ver-wurzelt, verankert, bewhrt}.

(this) [thing] / (dieses) [Ding].

not / nicht {un-}.

uprooted / entwurzelt.*

Well[-]rooted {anchored, established} ones
(get) not uprooted,

Gut Verwurzelt/e {Verankert/e, Bewhr/e}
(werden)
nicht entwurzelt,

Well-rooted ones will not be uprooted,

Gut Verwurzelte werden nicht entwurzelt,

Well rooted ones get not uprooted,

Entwurzeln: nicht aus festem Grund,

54.02.
006
010

善抱者
shn bo zhě

不脫
b tuō。

good, well / gut.

held_on / festhalten. **

(this) [thing] / (dieses) [Ding].

not / nicht {un-}.

taken_away {do not escape, go_astray} / weggenommen [abhanden kommen, in_die_Irre_gehen}.

well held_on [= to the One] ones
get not taken_away {do not escape, go_astray};

gut Festhaltend/e [am Einen, an der Einheit]
werden nicht weggenommen [abhanden kommen, in_die_Irre_gehen};

well hold-on ones not taken away;

die gut bewahren, werden nicht weggenommen;

and well held-on ones get not looted;

entnommen: nicht aus festem Bund;

54.03.
011
017

子孫
zǐ sūn


祭祀
j s

不輟
b chu。

children, sons / Kinder, Shne.

grandchildren, grandsons / Kindeskinder, Groshne.

子孫 children and grandchildren (sons and grandsons) {descendants} / Kinder und Kindeskinder (Shne und Gro-shne) [Nachfahren].

thereby / dabei; with, for, according to / mit; denn, gem.

to offer_sacrifices / Opfer_darbieten.

to sacrifice / opfern.

祭祀 to offer (ancestral)_sacrifices [= honoring ancestors], to offer sacrifices [= to the Gods or ancestors] / anbietend (Ahnen-)_Opfer, [= verehrend die Ahnen], Opfer darbieten [= den Gttern oder Ahnen]. [王弼Wng B, Wagner, 2003, p. 302, 481+482 (!)]. ***

not / nicht {un-}.

interrupted {stopped, ceased} / unterbrochen {ange-halten, aufzuhren haben}.

children and grandchildren (-sons) {descendants},
thereby
offering (
ancestral)_sacrifices {= honoring ancestors},
are not interrupted {stopped, ceased}.

Kinder und Kindeskinder (-shne) [Nachfahren],
dabei
anbietend (Ahnen-)_Opfer, {= verehrend
die Ahnen}
werden nicht unterbrochen {angehalten, aufzuhren haben}.

thereby, children and grandchildren will not cease to offer sacrifices to their ancestors.

Kinder und Kindeskinder, welche dabei ihren Ahnen Opfer darbieten, werden nicht unterbrochen.

thus, child and grandchild do not end
ancestral sacrifice
to
spend.

soll so bei Kind und Kindeskindern
das
Ahnenopfer sie nicht hindern.

 

 54.01. + 54.02. = thereby/ dabei ... 54.03. [cf. Kalinke (2), 2000 p. 57, (footnote 297], Lau, Henricks, Debon, Schwarz, etc.

*善建者不拔 Deep values, no worldly incentives! / Tiefe (innere) Werte, keine weltlichen Anreize! (h.a.); not corrupt / nicht korrupt [Shen, 2004 p. 274]; related to Do [Ellen M. Chen / Wng B 王弼]... Rump, 1979 p. 154].
"He who is good in anchoring will not be uprooted" /
"Wer gut ist im Verankern wird nicht entwurzelt werden." [Wng B 王弼 / Wagner, 2003 p. 302].

** lit.; to hide something under one's garment / etwas unter seinem Gewand verbergen [Shen, 2004 p. 275].

*** 祭+祀 = "meat sacrifice" (for spiritual beings) + to sacrifce / Fleischopfer (fr Geistwesen) + opfern: "customary rites and autumnal sacrifice" / "gebruchliche Riten und Herbstopfer" [Ames & Hall, 2004 p. 160].

祭+祀 = "Earth sacrifice" and "Heaven sacrifice" = "to sacrifice" / "Erdopfer" und "Himmelsopfer"= "opfern" [Gāo, 1974 p. 1177].
54.03. [Wng B 王弼 / Wagner, 2003 p. 302+ 481-482].

54.b
018
057

Cultivation of Inner Power Everywhere

Pflege der Inneren Kraft berall

No.
sum

Wng B 王弼
Pīnyīn 拼音

Characters
Schriftzeichen

Analysis
Analyse

Verbatim
Wortgetreu

Poetic
Poetisch

54.04.
018
025

修之
xiū zhī

於身,
y shēn,

其德
q d

乃真。
nǎi zhēn。

to cultivate {to build, to strive_after} / pflegen {gestalten, erstreben}.*

it [Do] / es [Do] **

in / an.

yourself / dir_selbst.

your / dein(-e).

Inner_Power / Innere_Kraft.

then / dann.

genuine {true} / echt {wahr} oder: ursprnglich.

Cultivate {build, strive_after} it [Do]
in yourself,
your Inner_Power

becomes then genuine {true};

Pflege {gestalte, erstrebe} es [Do]
an dir_selbst,
deine Innere_Kraft

wird
dann echt {wahr};

Cultivate it in your Self, then your Inner Power becomes genuine;

Pflege sie an dir selbst, dann wird deine Innere Kraft echt;

Within your Self, first Do let flower,
then genuine: your Inner Power;

Lass an dir selbst erst Do pflegen,
die Innere Kraft wird
echt deswegen;

54.05.
026
033

修之
xiū zhī

於家,
y jiā,

其德
q d

乃餘。
nǎi y。

to cultivate {to build, to strive_after} / pflegen {gestalten, erstreben}.*

it [Do] / es [Do] **

in / in.

family / Familie.

your / deine.

Inner_Power / Innere_Kraft.

then / dann.

abundant {plentiful} / reichlich {in_Flle}.

cultivate {build, strive_after} it [Do]
in
the family,
your Inner_Power

becomes then abundant {plentiful};

pflege {gestalte, erstrebe} es [Do]
in der Familie,
deine Innere_Kraft

wird dann reichlich {in_Flle};

cultivate it in the family, then your Inner Power becomes abundant;

pflege sie in der Familie, dann wird deine Innere Kraft reichlich;

let in your family it flower,
gets ample
then your Inner Power;

und als Familie wend' es an,
die Innere Kraft wird
reichlich dann;

54.06.
034
041

修之
xiū zhī

於鄉,
y xiāng,

其德
q d

乃長。
nǎi chng。

to cultivate {to build, to strive_after} / pflegen {gestalten, erstreben}.*

it [Do] / es [Do] **

in / im.

village {community} / Dorf {in der Gemeinde}.

your / deine.

Inner_Power / Innere_Kraft.

then / dann.

enduring / dauerhaft.

cultivate {build, strive_after} it [Do]
in
the village {community}
,
your Inner_Power
wbecomes then enduring;

pflege {gestalte, erstrebe} es [Do]
im Dorf {in der Gemeinde},
deine Innere_Kraft
wird dann dauerhaft;

cultivate it in the community, then your Inner Power becomes enduring;

pflege sie in der Gemeinde, dann wird deine Innere Kraft dauerhaft;

within your village let it flower,
gets timeless then
your Inner Power;

auch pfleg' im Dorf es dauerhaft
wird
so dann deine Innere Kraft;

54.07.
042
049

修之
xiū zhī

於國,
y guō,

其德
q d

乃 豐。
nǎi fēng。

to cherish {to build, to strive_after} / pflegen {gestalten, erstreben}.*

it [= Do] / es [= Do].**

in / im.

country, realm, state, nation / Land, Reich, Staat, Nation.

your / dein(-e.)

Inner_Power / Innere_Kraft.

then / dann.

lit.: ample, abundant; handsome / reichlich; ansehnlich; overflowing {opulent} / berflieend {ppig}.***

to cherish {to build, to strive_after} it [Do]
in
the country {realm, state, nation},
your Inner_Power

becomes then overflowing {opulent};

pflege {gestalte, erstrebe} es [Do]
im Lande {im Reich, Staatj, in der Nation},
deine Innere_Kraft
wird dann berflieend {ppig}

cultivate it in the country, then your Inner Power becomes overflowing;

pflege sie im Land, dann wird deine Innere Kraft berflieend;

within your nation let it flower,
gets overflowing then your Power;

und lass' im Lande es nun sprieen,
die Innere Kraft wird berflieen;

54.08.
050
058

修之
xiū zhī

於天下,
y tiān xi,

其德
q d

乃普。
nǎi pǔ。

to cultivate {to build, to strive_after} / pflegen {gestalten, erstreben}.*

it [= Do] / es [= Do].**

天下 World {= "Heaven / under"} / Welt {= "Himmel / unter"}.

your / dein(-e.)

Inner_Power / Innere_Kraft.

then / dann.

all-embracing {all-encompassing} / allumfassend {allum-greifend}. lit.: universal, ubiquitous / universell, berall.

cultivate {build, strive_after} it [Do]
in all_world
{= "Heaven / under"},
your Inner_Power
becomes then all-embracing {all-encompassing}.

pflege {gestalte, erstrebe} es [Do]
in
aller_Welt {= "Himmel / unter"},
deine Innere_Kraft
wird dann allumfassend {allumgreifend}.

cultivate it in all world, then your Inner Power becomes all-embra-cing.

pflege sie in aller Welt, dann wird deine Innere Kraft allumfassend.

within all world now let it flower,
gets widespread then your Inner Power.

es weltweit nun auch pflegen lassend
wird dann die Innere Kraft umfassend.

 

  here:
 ~
孔夫子 Kǒng  zǐ...
[J. Jacobs, 2001 p. 160;
E. Schwarz, 1980 p. 186].

* [Kalinke (2); 2000 p: 57]: "gestalten" [Wilhelm, Rousselle], "kultivieren" (im Sinne von "pflegen"!) [Chan, Lau, Feng & English, Henricks, Mller], "einfhren" / "to introduce" [v. Strau], "pflegen" [Debon, Ulenbrook, Knospe & Brndli], (Do) "anwenden" / "to apply", "to use" [Ch'u Ta Kao], "gebrauchen" / "to use", "to employ" [Schwarz].

**54.04-54.08. it = this way - as followed in 54.01-54.03. = this Do /
**54.04-54.08. es = dieser Weg (wie in 54.01-54.03. = Do.

*** Reichtum, Flle / wealth, plethora [Chan, Ch'u Ta Kao, Lau, Henricks, Wilhelm, Mller; s. Kalinke, 2000 p. 57], "Frchte tragen", "blhen" / to yield fruit, to blossom [v. Strau, Debon, Schwarz].

 

54.c
059
081

Adequate Considerations

Angemessene Betrachtungen

No.
sum

Wng B 王弼
Pīnyīn 拼音

Characters
Schriftzeichen

Analysis
Analyse

Verbatim
Wortgetreu

Poetic
Poetisch

54.09.
059
063


g

以身
yǐ shēn

觀身,
guān shēn,

hence / daher.

according to / gem.

your Self / dir selbst.

to consider {to evaluate, to behold, to understand} / be-trachten {beurteilen, erschauen, verstehen}.*

yourself / dich selbst.

Hence,
according
to your Self
consider {evaluate, behold, understand} yourself,

Darum:
gem dir selbst
betrachte {beurteile, erschaue, verstehe} dich selbst,

Hence, according to your Self consider yourself,

Darum: betrachte dich gem deinem Selbst,

Hence, to yourself, accordingly,
that way behold yourself to be,

Drum: schau gem dir selbst auf dich,

54.10.
064
067

以家
yǐ jiā

觀家,
guān jiā,

according to, by; / gem; with, for, by means of / mit; denn, mittels.

family / Familie.

to consider {to evaluate, to behold, to understand} / be-trachten {beurteilen, erschauen, verstehen}.*

family / Familie.

according to the family
consider {evaluate, behold, understand}
the family,

gem der Familie
betrachte {beurteile, erschaue, verstehe}
die Familie,

according to your family consider your family,

betrachte die Familie gem der Familie,

see family as family,

Familie sieh' verwandtschaftlich,

54.11.
068
071

以鄉
yǐ xiāng

觀鄉,
guān xiāng,

according to, by; / gem; with, for, by means of / mit; denn, mittels.

village {community} / Gemeinde.

to consider {to evaluate, to behold, to understand} / be-trachten {beurteilen, erschauen, verstehen}.*

village {community} / Gemeinde.

according to the village {community}
consider {evaluate, behold, understand}
the village {community},

gem der Gemeinde
betrachte {beurteile, erschaue, verstehe}
die Gemeinde,

according to the community consider the community,

betrachte die Gemeinde gem der Gemeinde,

see village as community,

das Dorf gem dem Dorf an sich,

54.12.
072
075

以國
yǐ guō

觀國,
 guān guō,

according to; by; / gem; with, for, by means of / mit; denn, mittels.

country {realm, state, nation} / Land {Reich, Staat, Na-tion}.**

to consider {to evaluate, to behold, to understand} / be-trachten {beurteilen, erschauen, verstehen}.*

country {realm, state, nation} / Land {Reich, Staat, Na-tion}.**

according to the country {realm, state, nation}
consider {evaluate, behold, understand}
the country {realm, state, nation},

gem dem Land
betrachte {beurteile, erschaue, verstehe}
das Land {Reich, Staat, Nation}.

according to the country consider the country,

betrachte das Land gem dem Land,

consider nations nationally,

dem Land gem auf's Land geachtet,

54.13.
076
081

以天下
yǐ tiān xi

觀天下。
guān tiān xi。

according to, by; / gem; with, for, by means of / mit; denn, mittels.

天下 World {= "Heaven / under"} / Welt {= "Himmel / un-ter"}.

to consider {to evaluate, to behold, to understand} / be-trachten {beurteilen, erschauen, verstehen}.*

天下 World {= "Heaven / under"} / Welt {= "Himmel / unter"}.

according to all_world {= "Heaven / under"}
consider {evaluate, behold, understand} all_world {= "Heaven / under"}.

gem aller_Welt {= "Himmel / unter"}
betrachte {beurteile, erschaue, verstehe} alle Welt
{= "Himmel / unter".

according to all world consider all world.

betrachte alle Welt gem aller Welt.

see world as world, accordingly.

die Welt sei weltgem betrachtet.

 

 

* 54.09.-54.13. or: to view, to judge, to check; to conceive / oder: sehen, beurteilen, prfen; begreifen.
(by means of X) "regards X" / (mittels X) "betrachte X" [E. Erkes, 1958 p. 95+212 /
Hshng Gōng 河上公].

** 54.07.+54.12. 郭店 Guōdin: = bāng, 馬王堆 Mǎwngduī B also: = [A = illegible / unleserlich].

 

 

54.d
082
091

Intuitive Knowledge

Intuitives Wissen

No.
sum

Wng B 王弼
Pīnyīn 拼音

Characters
Schriftzeichen

Analysis
Analyse

Verbatim
Wortgetreu

Poetic
Poetisch

54.14.
082
089


何以知
h yǐ zhī

天下
tiān xi

然哉?
rn zāi?

I (we) / ich (wir).

where {whence} / wo {woher}.

by, with, for, by means of, according / von, mit; denn, mittels, gem,.

何以 whence, where/by / wo/her, wo/durch.

to understand {to know, to realize} / verstehen {erken-nen, wahrnehmen}.

天下 World {= "Heaven / under"} / Welt {= "Himmel / unter"}.

as_such {thus, correctly} / als_solche {so, korrekt}.

[, indeed]? / wohl [frwahr]?

然哉 s. 57.04.

And I
where/by
{whence} do I realise
the world {= "Heaven / under"}
as_such {thus, correctly} [, indeed]?

Und ich
wo/durch {woher} erkenn
e ich
die
Welt {= "Himmel / unter"}
als_solche {so, korrekt} wohl [, frwahr]?

Whereby I realize all world as such, indeed,?

Wodurch erkenne ich alle Welt als solche wohl?

Whereby then do I really see
all
world as such?

Und ich, wodurch erkenne ich
die
Welt als solche?

54.15.
090
091

以此!
yǐ cǐ!

for / um; to use, by, with, for, by means of, according to / gebrauchen, von, mit; denn, mittels, gem. *

this, these / dies(-e).

以此 or: just therefore! by all that! spontaneously! (intuitive) / oder: eben daher! durch all dies! spontan! (intuitiv) s. 21.17, 57.05.!

From this! {Ergo} [= Intuitively, spontaneously, naturally!]

Da/durch! {Ebendrum!} [ = Intuitiv, spontan, natrlicherweise!]

From this!

Ebendrum!

              Spontaneously!

                Innerlich!

 

 * "related to the above-mentioned social units" / "bezogen auf die oben-genannten sozialen Einhei-ten". [Duyvendak].

* Confucius' 大學 d xu (originally from the 'Book of Rites' 禮記 lǐ j) is almost completely parallel in content and form! Here the instructive comparison:

 What the Great Learning teaches is: to illustrate illustrious virtue; to renovate the people; and to rest in the highest excellence. 大學之道,在明明德,在親民,在止於至善。
 The point where to rest being known, the object of pursuit is then determined; and, that being determined, an unperturbed calmness may be attained to.
知止而後有定;定而後能靜
 To that calmness there will succeed a tranquil repose. In that repose there may be careful deliberation, and that deliberation will be followed by the attainment of the desired end.
靜而後能安;安而後能慮;慮而後能得

 

*Things have their root and their branches. Affairs have their end and their beginning. To know what is first and what is last will lead near to what is taught in the Great Learning. 物有本末,事有終始,知所先後,則近道矣。

 

**The ancients who wished to illustrate illustrious virtue throughout the world, first ordered well their own States. 古之欲明明德於天下者,先治其國
 Wishing to order well their States, they first regulated their families.
欲治其國者,先齊其家
 Wishing to regulate their families, they first cultivated their persons.
欲齊其家者,先修其身
 Wishing to cultivate their persons, they first rectified their hearts.
欲修其身者,先正其心
 Wishing to rectify their hearts, they first sought to be sincere in their thoughts.
欲正其心者,先誠其意
 Wishing to be sincere in their thoughts, they first extended to the utmost of their knowledge.
欲誠其意者,先致其知
 Such extension of knowledge lay in the investigation of things.
致知在格物

 

*** Things being investigated, knowledge became complete. 物格而後知至
Their knowledge being complete, their thoughts were sincere.
知至而後意誠
Their thoughts being sincere, their hearts were then rectified.
意誠而後心正
Their hearts being rectified, their persons were cultivated.
心正而後身修
Their persons being cultivated, their families were regulated.
身修而後家齊
Their families being regulated, their States were rightly governed.
家齊而後國治
Their States being rightly governed, the entire world was at peace.
國治而後天下平

(From the Son of Heaven down to the mass of the people, all must consider the cultivation of the person the root of everything besides. 自天子以至於庶人,壹是皆以修身為本
It cannot be, when the root is neglected, that what should spring from it will be well ordered.
其本亂而末治者,否矣
It never has been the case that what was of great importance has been slightly cared for, and, at the same time, that what was of slight importance has been greatly cared for.
其所厚者薄,而其所薄者厚,未之有也)

 [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Learning] 

 

+ Hn Fēizǐ
韓非子 (280-233)

20 解老第二十

獄訟繁,倉廩虛,而有以淫侈為俗,則國之傷也若以利劍刺之。故曰:「帶利劍。」 諸夫飾智故以至於傷國者,其私家必富;私家必富,故曰:「資貨有餘。」國有若是者,則愚民不得無術而效之, 效之則小盜生。由是觀之,大姦作〔則〕小盜隨,大姦唱則小盜和。

竽也者,五聲之長者也,故竽先則鍾瑟皆隨,竽唱則諸樂皆和。 今大姦作則俗之民唱,俗之民唱則小盜必和。故「服文采,帶利劍,厭飲食,而貨資有餘者,是之謂盜竽矣。」

人無愚智,莫不有趨舍。恬淡平安,莫不知禍福之所由來。得於好惡,怵於淫物, 而後變亂。所以然者,引於外物,亂於玩好也。恬淡有趨舍之義,平安知禍福之計。而今也玩好變之,外物引之。 引之而往,故曰「校」。至聖人不然:一建其趨舍,雖見所好之物,不能引,不能引之謂「不校」; 一於其情,雖有可欲之類,神不為動,神不為動之謂「不悅」。

為人子孫者,體此道以守宗廟,〔宗廟〕不滅之謂「祭祀不絕」。

身以積精為德,家以資財為德,鄉國天下皆以民為德。今治身而外物不能亂其精神, 故曰:「脩之身,其德乃真。」真者,慎之固也。

治家,無用之物不能動其計,則資有餘,故曰:「脩之家,其德有餘。」

治鄉者行此節,則家之有餘者益眾,故曰:「脩之鄉,其德乃長。」

治邦者行此節,則鄉之有德者益眾,故曰:「脩之邦,其德乃豐。」

莅天下者行此節,則民之生莫不受其澤,故曰:「脩之天下,其德乃普。」

脩身者以此別君子小人,治鄉治邦莅天下者,各以此科適觀息耗, 則萬不失一。故曰:「以身觀身,以家觀家,〔以鄉觀鄉〕,以邦觀邦,以天下觀天下。吾奚以知天下之然也?以此。」

 

+ Hn Fēizǐ
韓非子 (280-233)

21 喻老第二十一

楚莊王既勝,狩于河雍,歸而賞孫叔敖。孫叔敖請漢間之地,沙石之處。 楚邦之法,祿臣再世而收地,唯孫叔敖獨在。此不以其邦為收者,瘠也,故九世而祀不絕。 故曰:「善建不拔,善抱不脫,子孫以其祭祀世世不輟。」孫叔敖之謂也。

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.tao-te-king.org/large-Blue-arrow-166.6-2393%5b1%5d.gif 54.01-02

善建者不拔,
shn jin zhě b b,

善抱者不脫。
shn bo zhě b tuō

+ Hn Fēizǐ 韓非子 (280-233) 20 解老第二十

 Men, whether stupid or intelligent, either accept or reject things. If reposed and secure, they would know the causes of misfortune and good luck. Excited by likes and dislikes and beguiled by obscene objects, they become different and perturbed. The reason for this is that they are attracted to external things and perturbed by likes and tastes. In fact, repose involves the meaning of accepting likes and rejecting dislikes; security purports the estimation of misfortune and good luck. Now, they are changed by likes and tastes and attracted to external things. Since they are attracted to external things and thereby led astray, hence the saying of "being uprooted". Such is not the case with the saintly man, however. Once he sets up his principle of acceptance and rejection, then though he sees things he likes, he is never attracted to them. Not to be attracted to them is said to "be not uprooted". Once he sets up the basis of devotion, then though there may be things that he likes, his mind is never thereby moved. Not to be moved is said to "be not looted".

 Sons and grandsons act upon this Tao and thereby maintain the ancestral halls. The indestructibility of the ancestral halls means "the everlasting duration of the sacrificial celebrations".

 To accumulate energy is virtue to oneself. To accumulate property is virtue to one's family. To tranquillize the people is virtue to the village, to the state, and to All-under-Heaven. Since one refines his personality and external things cannot perturb his mind, hence the saying: "Who cultivates it in his person, his virtue is genuine." By "genuineness" is meant "firmness of prudence". 

 Who manages his family affairs, his decision is never moved by useless things. If this is so, his resources will be overflowing. Hence the saying: "Who cultivates it in his family, his virtue is overflowing."

 If the squire of the village acts upon this principle, then homes that have abundance will multiply. Hence the saying: "Who cultivates it in his village, his virtue lasts long and spreads wide."

 If the governor of the country acts upon this principle, then villages that have virtue will multiply. Hence the saying: "Who cultivates it in his country, his virtue is abundant."

 If the ruler of All-under-Heaven acts upon this principle, then the livelihood of the people will always receive his beneficence. Hence the saying: "Who cultivates it in All-under-Heaven, his virtue is universal."

 If the self-cultivator differentiates the superior man from the small man by means of this principle, and if the squire of the village, the governor of the country, and the ruler of All-under-Heaven, all follow this principle in making a comprehensive survey of their respective gains and losses, there can be no single mistake in a myriad cases. Hence the saying: "By one's person one looks at persons. By one's family one looks at families. By one's village one looks at villages. By one's country one looks at countries. By one's All-under-Heaven one looks at All-under-Heaven. How 88 do I know that All-under-Heaven is such? Through IT."

Numbers = Notes in:

http://www2.iath.virginia.edu:8080/exist/cocoon/xwomen/texts/hanfei/d2.20/1/0/bilingual
 

+ Hn Fēizǐ 韓非子 (280-233) 21 喻老第二十一

 King Chuang of Ch`u, after winning the war with Chin, 9 held a hunt at Ho-yung. Upon his return, he gave a reward to Sun-shu Ao. However, Sun-shu Ao asked for the sandy and stony land by the Han River. According to the Law of the Ch`u State, allotments to feudal nobles should be confiscated after two generations, but only Sun-shu Ao's fief was left intact. The reason why his fief 10 was not confiscated was because the land was sterile. Accordingly, sacrifices at his family shrine lasted for nine generations unbroken. Hence the saying: "What is well planted is not uprooted; what is well preserved cannot be looted. For by sons and grandsons the sacrificial celebrations shall not cease." Thus was the case with Sun-shu Ao.

 

Numbers = Notes in:

http://www2.iath.virginia.edu:8080/exist/cocoon/xwomen/texts/hanfei/d2.20/1/0/bilingual

 

老子 Lǎozĭ 道 德 經 Dodjīng 54, 01-02

Well rooted ones get not uprooted,

and well held-on ones get not looted

Entwurzeln: nicht aus festem Grund,

entnommen: nicht aus festem Bund ...

善建者不拔,
shn jin zhě b b,

善抱者不脫。

shn bo zhě b tuō

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yē sū Matthew 7:24-25

24 Therefore everyone who hears these words of Mine and acts on them is like a wise man who built his house on the rock. 25 The rain fell, the torrents raged, and the winds blew and beat against that house; yet it did not fall, because its foundation was on the rock.

24 Darum, wer diese meine Rede hrt und tut sie, den vergleiche ich einem klugen Mann, der sein Haus auf einen Felsen baute. 25 Da nun ein Platzregen fiel und ein Gewsser kam und wehten die Winde und stieen an das Haus, fiel es doch nicht; denn es war auf einen Felsen gegrndet.

24「所以,凡聽見我這話就去行的,好比一個聰明人,把房子蓋在磐石上。 25 雨淋,水沖,風吹,撞著那房子,房子總不倒塌,因為根基立在磐石上。

24`Suǒyǐ, fn tīngjin wǒ zh hu ji q xng de, hǎobǐ yīg cōngmng rn, bǎ fngzi gi zi pnsh shng. 25 Yǔ ln, shuǐ chōng, fēngchuī, zhungzhe n fngzi, fngzi zǒng b dǎotā, yīnwi gēnjī l zi pnsh shng.

 

54
001
091

 

sum:

3412
3502

 第五十四章
d wǔ sh s zhāng

Social Maturing

Soziale Reifung

 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09

 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36

 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45

 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54

 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63

 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72

 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81

 

北大 Běi D 54

B: 善建  不拔善抱  不脫子孫以其祭祀不
   脩之  其德乃真脩之  其德有餘
   脩之  其德乃長脩之 
  其德乃
   脩之  天下其德乃
    以身觀身
   以家觀家以鄉觀鄉國觀國

   以天下觀天下吾何以天下然哉以此

 

馬王堆 Mǎwngduī 54

M:善建 □ □    □ □ □ □ 子孫以祭祀 □ □    
   □ □ □ □    □ □ □     □ □        □ □ □
0 0
   脩之 □ □    □ □ □   □ □ □ □ □ □ □  
   □ □ □ □ □   □         □ 以身 □  
   以家觀家   以鄉觀鄉  以邦觀邦 

   以天 □ □   □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □   □ □  

 

馬王堆 Mǎwngduī 54

m: 善建者□ □   □ □ □ □ □   子孫以  祭祀不 
   脩之 
  德乃真  脩之    德有 
  
    德乃長  脩之    德乃 
   脩之  天下  德乃    以身觀身 
   以家觀   □ □ □   以天下 

     天下     □   吾何  知天下    

 

郭店 Guōdin B8 = 54

G: 善建者不拔者不子孫  祭祀不
     其德乃 攸之  其德
     其德乃長 攸之  其德乃
                           
  
        以鄉觀鄉以邦觀邦

   以天下觀天下吾可以               

 

 

王弼 Wng B 54

W:善建者不拔善抱者不脫子孫以  祭祀不輟
   修之於身  其德乃真修之  其德乃餘
   修之於鄉  其德乃長修之於邦  其德乃豐
   修之於天下  其德乃普故以身觀身
   以家觀家 以鄉觀鄉以邦觀邦

   以天下觀天下吾何以知天下  然哉以此

 

河上公 Hshng Gōng 54

H: 善建不拔善抱者不脫子孫    祭祀不輟
   修之於身其德乃真修之於家其德乃餘
   修之於鄉其德乃長修之於其德乃豐
   修之於天下其德乃普故以身觀身
   以家觀家以鄉觀鄉

   以天下觀天下吾何以知天下  然哉以此

 

傅奕 F Y 54

F: 善建者不拔善袌者不脱子孫    祭祀不輟
   修之  其德乃真修之  其德乃餘
   修之  其德乃長修之  其德乃豐
   修之  天下其徳乃故以身觀身
   以家觀家 以鄉觀鄉以邦觀邦

   以天下觀天下以知天下然哉以此

 

 

 

 

Raw texts s. below / Rohtexte s. unten!

 

           
 

Raw texts / Rohtexte:

+ New Discoveries:   1 2 3

G:  Guōdin  郭店 ~ -300
M: 
Mǎwngduī  馬王堆 A < -
206
m: 
Mǎwngduī  馬王堆 B
< -179
B:  Běi D 北大  ~ -150, ~ -100

 

~ Textus Receptus:    1 2 3

W: Wng B 王弼  (226249) < +250
H:  
Hshng Gōng 河上公  > +100
F:
  F Y  傅奕 (554−639) +574 / < -202

 

+ Hn Fēizǐ  韓非子 (280-233) - W. K. Liao: * in: The Complete Works of Han Fei Tzŭ with Collected Commentaries, April 1939. [Link].

 Ch. XX. Commentaries on Lao Tzŭ's Teachings:  = DDJ 38, 58, 59, 60, 46, 14, 01, 50, 67, 53, 54
 
Ch. XXI. Illustrations of Lao Tzŭ's Teachings.* = DDJ 46, 54, 26, 36, 63, 64, 52, 71, 64, 47, 41, 33, 27

B:善建不拔,善抱不脫,子孫以其祭祀不絕。脩之身,其德乃真;脩之家,其德有餘;脩之鄉,其德乃長;脩之國,其德乃逢;脩之天下,其德乃薄。以身觀身,以家觀家,以鄉觀鄉,以國觀國,以天下觀天下。吾何以智天下然哉?以此。
逢(豐), 薄(溥), (知).

M:善建□□撥□□□□□子孫以祭祀□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□餘‧脩之□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□以身□身以家觀家以鄉觀鄉以邦觀邦以天□觀□□□□□□□□□□□□□

m:善建者□□□□□□□子孫以祭祀不絕脩之身亓德乃真脩之家亓德有餘脩之鄉亓德乃長脩之國亓德乃夆脩之

 天下亓德乃博以身觀身以家觀□□□□國以天下觀天下吾何□知天下之然茲以□

G(B8):善建者不拔,善保者不兌。子孫以其祭祀不屯。攸之身,其德乃貞。攸之家,其德又餘。攸之鄉,其德乃長。攸之邦,其德乃奉。攸之天 家,以鄉觀鄉,以邦觀邦,以天下觀天下。吾可以智天

W:善建者不拔。善抱者不脫。子孫以祭祀不輟。修之於身其德乃真。修之於家其德乃餘。修之於鄉其德乃長。修之於邦其德乃豐。修之於天下其德乃普。故以身觀身,以家觀家,以鄉觀鄉,以邦觀邦,以天下觀天下。吾何以知天下然哉﹖以此

H:善建者不拔,善抱者不脫,子孫祭祀不輟。修之於身,其德乃真,修之於家,其德乃餘,修之於鄉,其德乃長,修之於國,其德乃豐,修之於天下,其德乃普。故以身觀身,以家觀家,以鄉觀鄉,以國觀國,以天下觀天下。吾何以知天下之然哉,以此。

F:善建者不拔,善袌者不脱,子孫祭祀不輟。修之身,其徳乃眞。修之家,其徳乃餘。修之郷,其徳乃長。修之邦,其徳乃豐。修之天下,其徳乃博。故以身觀身,以家觀家,以郷觀郷,以邦觀邦,以天下觀天下。吾奚以知天下之然哉。以此。

 

 

 

 

Mǎwngduī: ch. 1-37 after 38-81; 24 before 22 + 23, 41 before 41, 80+81 after 66.

Mǎwngduī: Kap. 1-37 nach 38-81; 24 vor 22 + 23, 41 vor 41, 80+81 nach 66.

 

54

Etymological Notes:

 

Simple pictograph 善. From say a lot 誩 and goat 羊 (offering). Meaning: virtuous.

From road 廴 and plan (to write down) 聿. Meaning: to establish.

Simple pictograph 者. (unclear probably 口曰 and phonetic 止+ some dots) of original. Meaning: probably 这 this

Simple pictograph. Unclear origin. Possibly a root which us pulled up and is thus NOT there. Meaning: no.

From hand 扌手 and phonetic 犮. Meaning to pull out.

From hand 扌手 and phonetic (Meaning: to hold in the arms) 包. Meaning: to hold in arms.

From meat 月肉 and phonetic 兑兌. Meaning: to take off as in show yourself.

Simple pictograph 子. A baby with hands.

Deletion remnant 孙(t孫). From child 子 and small 小系 or string 系 (a line of children). Meaning grandchild.

Simple pictograph 以. Usually a pictograph of a mouth often making some kind of sound. Borrowed for sound. Meaning: by means of.Simple pictograph 以. g by means of.

From meat 月肉 in the hand 又 over an altar 示. Meaning to sacrifice.

s to sacrifice worship; 示+3 Composition: Left: right: . to sacrifice worship

Composition:Left: chē cart vehicle; carry in cart right: zhu . stop suspend halt; zhu . stop suspend halt;

From lines 彡 indicating writing and phonetic (also meaning to test) 攸. Meaning to study.

Simple pictograph 之㞢𡳿. Augmentation of foot 止 going forward from 一. Originally indicating to go forward.

Simple pictograph 於. Unclear origin. Meaning: in.

Simple pictograph 身. A fat man or pregnant woman 身. Meaning: body.

 Simple pictograph 其. A basket being held by two hands. Borrowed for sound. Meaning: his.

From road 彳 and phonetic 悳. Meaning: ethics. (悳 means to go have a straight 直 heart 心)

Simple pictograph 乃. Origin unclear. Meaning: then.

Compound pictograph 真. From straight 直 placed on a table for people to see that it is real. Meaning: real. (see other etymologies 鼎)

From lines 彡 indicating writing and phonetic (also meaning to test) 攸. Meaning to study.

From building 宀 and phonetic (also Meaning: pig) 豕. Meaning: house. (note: 豕 pig used to live under the house which were on stilts).

Composition:Left: sh eat food; radical number 184 right: . I my me; surname; surplus. = surplus excess remainder

From lines 彡 indicating writing and phonetic (also meaning to test) 攸. Meaning to study.

Deletion remnant 乡(t鄉). From city 乡邑 and food 皀 and city 阝邑. Meaning rural.

Simple pictograph 长長. A man with long hair. Meaning: long.

From lines 彡 indicating writing and phonetic (also meaning to test) 攸. Meaning to study.

From city 阝邑 and phonetic (also meaning the crops around the city) 丰. Meaning nation.

fēng + 3 strokes: abundant lush bountiful plenty luxuriant buxom

Augmented pictograph 天. Augmentation 一 (head) to person 大. Meaning: sky.

Simple pictograph 下(丅𠄟). A mark below the line. Meaning: down.

From even or equal 並竝 and sun 日. Original meaning dusk. Meaning universal.

From hand 攵攴 and phonetic (also Meaning: ancient) 古. Original Meaning: ancient and reason.

From see 见見 and phonetic 又雚. Meaning: to see.

From mouth 口 and phonetic 五. Meaning: I.

From heart 心 and phonetic 串. Meaning: to suffer.

From mouth 口 (character created for sound) and phonetic 矢 borrowed for sound. Meaning: to know.

From meat 月肉 and dog 犬 and fire 灬火 Original of 燃. Original Meaning: to cook.

Composition:Top-right: 𢦏 zāi to cut wound hurt bottom-left: kǒu mouth; open end; entrance gate. = final exclamatory particle.

From foot 止 and person standing there 匕. Meaning: this.

 

Sources:

http://www.thetao.info/tao/big5.htm,

http://ctext.org/dictionary.pl?if=en&char=%E4%B9%8D

https://chinese.yabla.com/chinese-english-pinyin-dictionary.php?define=%E4%B9%8D

http://www.chineseetymology.org/CharacterEtymology.aspx?submitButton1=Etymology&characterInput=%E4%BD%9C [and more].

 

 

Literature:

Běi D 北大 ~ -150, ~ -100.

Dodjīng 道德經 ~ -400) by → 老子 Lǎozĭ.

F Y 傅奕 (555−639) 574 / < -202.

Guōdin 郭店 ~ -300.

Hn Fēizǐ 韓非子 (-280-233) ch. 20+21.

Hshng Gōng 河上公 > 100 .

Kǒng fū zǐ 孔夫子 (Confucius / Konfuzius).

Lǎozĭ 老子~ -400: Dodjīng 道德經.

Lizǐ 列子 ~ -440-360, ~ -350.

Ln yǔ 論語 = Analects by 孔夫子 Kǒng fū zǐ (Confucius / Konfuzius).

Mǎwngduī 馬王堆 A < -206.

Mǎwngduī 馬王堆 B < -179.

Wng B 王弼 (226249) < 250.

Y Jīng (Book of Change) .

Zhuāngzǐ (-369-286) .

=

北大 Běi D ~ -150, ~ -100.

道德經 Dodjīng by 老子 Lǎozĭ.

傅奕 F Y (-554−639 +574 / < -202 .

郭店 Guōdin ~ -300.

韓非子 Hn Fēizǐ (-280-233).

河上公 Hshng Gōng > 100 .

孔夫子 Kǒng fū zǐ (Confucius / Konfuzius).

老子 Lǎozĭ ~ -400: Dodjīng 道德經.

列子 Lizǐ ~ -440-360 ~ -350.

Ln yǔ = Analects 孔夫子 Kǒng fū zǐ Confucius / Konfuzius.

馬王堆 Mǎwngduī A < -206.

馬王堆 Mǎwngduī B < -179.

王弼 Wng B (226249) < 250.

Y Jīng (Book of Change) .

莊子 Zhuāngzǐ (-369-286) .

 

 

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